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 Internet Marketing (Web marketing, Online marketing, e-Marketing):
Definition/Meaning & Principles
(Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Minor edits by Eric Gondwe)

Contents
    * A Introduction
    * B Major Types of Internet Marketing
    * 1 Business models of Internet Marketing
          o 1.1 One-to-one approach
          o 1.2 Appeal to specific interests
          o 1.3 Geo targeting
                + 1.3.1 Different content by choice
                + 1.3.2 Automated different content
    * 2 Advantages of Internet Marketing
    * 3 Limitations of Internet Marketing
    * 4 Security concerns of Internet Marketing
    * 5 Broadband-induced trends in Internet Marketing
    * 6 Effects of Internet Marketing on industries
    * 7 See also
    * 8 References

Introduction
Internet marketing, also referred to as i-marketing, web-marketing, online-marketing, or e-Marketing, is the marketing of products or services over the Internet.

The Internet has brought media to a global audience. The interactive nature of Internet marketing in terms of providing instant response and eliciting responses, is a unique quality of the medium. Internet marketing is sometimes considered to have a broader scope because it not only refers to the Internet, e-mail, and wireless media, but it includes management of digital customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems.

Internet marketing ties together creative and technical aspects of the Internet, including: design, development, advertising, and sales.

Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along different stages of the customer engagement cycle through search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimization (SEO), banner ads on specific websites, e-mail marketing, and Web 2.0 strategies. In 2008 The New York Times, working with comScore, published an initial estimate to quantify the user data collected by large Internet-based companies. Counting four types of interactions with company websites in addition to the hits from advertisements served from advertising networks, the authors found the potential for collecting data upward of 2,500 times on average per user per month.[1]

Major Types of Internet Marketing
General types:
Display advertising
E-mail marketing
E-mail marketing software
Interactive advertising
Social media optimization
Web analytics
Cost per impression
Affiliate marketing:
      Cost per action
      Contextual advertising
      Revenue sharing
Search engine marketing:
      Search engine optimization
      Pay per click advertising
      Paid inclusion
      Search analytics
Mobile advertising

Business models of Internet Marketing
Internet marketing is associated with several business models:
    * e-commerce — this is where goods are sold directly to consumers (B2C) or businesses (B2B)
    * Publishing — this is the sale of advertising
    * lead-based websites — this is an organization that generates value by acquiring sales leads from its website
    * affiliate marketing — this is process in which a product or service developed by one person is sold by other active seller for a share of profits. The owner of the product normally provide some marketing material (sales letter, affiliate link, tracking facility).
    * local internet marketing - this is the process of a locally based company traditionally selling belly to belly and utilizing the Internet to find and nurture relationships, later to take those relationships offline.
    * blackhat marketing - this is a form of internet marketing which employs deceptive, less than truthful methods to drive web traffic to a website or affiliate marketing offer. This method sometimes includes spam, cloaking within search engine result pages, or routing users to pages they didn't initially request.

There are many other business models based on the specific needs of each person or the business that launches an Internet marketing campaign.

          o 1.1 One-to-one approach
          o 1.2 Appeal to specific interests
          o 1.3 Geo targeting
                + 1.3.1 Different content by choice
                + 1.3.2 Automated different content

One-to-one approach
The targeted user is typically browsing the Internet alone therefore the marketing messages can reach them personally. This approach is used in search marketing, where the advertisements are based on search engine keywords entered by the user.

And now with the advent of Web 2.0 tools, many users can interconnect as "peers."

Appeal to specific interests
Internet marketing and geo marketing places an emphasis on marketing that appeals to a specific behaviour or interest, rather than reaching out to a broadly-defined demographic. "On- and Off-line" marketers typically segment their markets according to age group, gender, geography, and other general factors. Marketers have the luxury of targeting by activity and geolocation. For example, a kayak company can post advertisements on kayaking and canoeing websites with the full knowledge that the audience has a related interest.

Internet marketing differs from magazine advertisements, where the goal is to appeal to the projected demographic of the periodical, but rather the advertiser has knowledge of the target audience—people who engage in certain activities (e.g., uploading pictures, contributing to blogs)— so the company does not rely on the expectation that a certain group of people will be interested in its new product or service.

Geo targeting
Geo targeting (in internet marketing) and geo marketing are the methods of determining the geolocation (the physical location) of a website visitor with geolocation software, and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location, such as country, region/state, city, metro code/zip code, organization, Internet Protocol (IP) address, ISP or other criteria.
             Different content by choice
A typical example for different content by choice in geo targeting is the FedEx website at FedEx.com where users have the choice to select their country location first and are then presented with a different site or article content depending on their selection.

             Automated different content
With automated different content in Internet marketing and geomarketing, the delivery of different content based on the geographical geolocation and other personal information is automated.

Advantages of Internet Marketing
Internet marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the ratio of cost against the reach of the target audience. Companies can reach a wide audience for a small fraction of traditional advertising budgets. The nature of the medium allows consumers to research and purchase products and services at their own convenience. Therefore, businesses have the advantage of appealing to consumers in a medium that can bring results quickly. The strategy and overall effectiveness of marketing campaigns depend on business goals and cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis.

Internet marketers also have the advantage of measuring statistics easily and inexpensively. Nearly all aspects of an Internet marketing campaign can be traced, measured, and tested. The advertisers can use a variety of methods: pay per impression, pay per click, pay per play, or pay per action. Therefore, marketers can determine which messages or offerings are more appealing to the audience. The results of campaigns can be measured and tracked immediately because online marketing initiatives usually require users to click on an advertisement, visit a website, and perform a targeted action. Such measurement cannot be achieved through billboard advertising, where an individual will at best be interested, then decide to obtain more information at a later time..

Because exposure, response, and overall efficiency of Internet media are easier to track than traditional off-line media—through the use of web analytics for instance—Internet marketing can offer a greater sense of accountability for advertisers. Marketers and their clients are becoming aware of the need to measure the collaborative effects of marketing (i.e., how the Internet affects in-store sales) rather than siloing each advertising medium. The effects of multichannel marketing can be difficult to determine, but are an important part of ascertaining the value of media campaigns.

Limitations of Internet Marketing
Internet marketing requires customers to use newer technologies rather than traditional media. Low-speed Internet connections are another barrier. If companies build large or overly-complicated websites, individuals connected to the Internet via dial-up connections or mobile devices experience significant delays in content delivery.

From the buyer's perspective, the inability of shoppers to touch, smell, taste or "try on" tangible goods before making an online purchase can be limiting. However, there is an industry standard for e-commerce vendors to reassure customers by having liberal return policies as well as providing in-store pick-up services.

A survey of 410 marketing executives listed the following barriers to entry for large companies looking to market online: insufficient ability to measure impact, lack of internal capability, and difficulty convincing senior management.[2]

Security concerns of Internet Marketing
Information security is important both to companies and consumers that participate in online business. Many consumers are hesitant to purchase items over the Internet because they do not trust that their personal information will remain private. Encryption is the primary method for implementing privacy policies.

Recently some companies that do business online have been caught giving away or selling information about their customers. Several of these companies provide guarantees on their websites, claiming that customer information will remain private. Some companies that purchase customer information offer the option for individuals to have their information removed from the database, also known as opting out. However, many customers are unaware if and when their information is being shared, and are unable to stop the transfer of their information between companies if such activity occurs.

Another major security concern that consumers have with e-commerce merchants is whether or not they will receive exactly what they purchase. Online merchants have attempted to address this concern by investing in and building strong consumer brands (e.g., Amazon.com, eBay, Overstock.com), and by leveraging merchant/feedback rating systems and e-commerce bonding solutions. All of these solutions attempt to assure consumers that their transactions will be free of problems because the merchants can be trusted to provide reliable products and services. Additionally, the major online payment mechanisms (credit cards, PayPal, Google Checkout, etc.) have also provided back-end buyer protection systems to address problems if they actually do occur.

Broadband-induced trends in Internet Marketing
Online advertising techniques have been dramatically affected by technological advancements in the telecommunications industry. In fact, many firms are embracing a new paradigm that is shifting the focus of online advertising from simple text ads to rich multimedia experiences. As a result, advertisers can more effectively engage in and manage online branding campaigns, which seek to shape consumer attitudes and feelings towards specific products. The critical technological development fueling this paradigm shift is Broadband.

In March 2005, roughly half of all American homes were equipped with broadband technology. By May 2008, broadband technologies had spread to more than 90% of all residential Internet connections in the United States. When one considers a Nielsen’s study conducted in June 2008, which estimated the number of U.S. Internet users as 220,141,969, one can calculate that there are presently about 199 million people in the United States utilizing broadband technologies to surf the Web.

As a result, all 199 million members of this burgeoning market have the ability to view TV-like advertisements with the click of a mouse. And to be sure, online advertisers are working feverishly to design rich multimedia content that will engender a “warm-fuzzy” feeling when viewed by their target audience. As connection speeds continue to increase, so will the frequency of online branding campaigns.

Effects of Internet Marketing on industries
The number of banks offering the ability to perform banking tasks online has also increased. Online banking is believed to appeal to customers because it is more convenient than visiting bank branches. Currently over 150 million U.S. adults now bank online, with increasing Internet connection speed being the primary reason for fast growth in the online banking industry. Of those individuals who use the Internet, 44 percent now perform banking activities over the Internet.

Internet auctions have gained popularity. Unique items that could only previously be found at flea markets are being sold on eBay. Specialized e-stores sell items ranging from antiques to movie props.[3][4] As the premier online reselling platform, eBay is often used as a price-basis for specialized items. Buyers and sellers often look at prices on the website before going to flea markets; the price shown on eBay often becomes the item's selling price. It is increasingly common for flea market vendors to place a targeted advertisement on the Internet for each item they are selling online, all while running their business out of their homes.

The effect on the advertising industry itself has been profound. In just a few years, online advertising has grown to be worth tens of billions of dollars annually.[5][6][7] PricewaterhouseCoopers reported that US$16.9 billion was spent on Internet marketing in the U.S. in 2006.[8]

This has had a growing impact on the electoral process. In 2008 candidates for President heavily utilized Internet marketing strategies to reach constituents. During the 2007 primaries candidates added, on average, over 500 social network supporters per day to help spread their message.[9] President Barack Obama raised over US$1 million in a single day during his extensive Democratic candidacy campaign, largely due to online donors.[10]

See also
    * Article marketing
    * Call to action (marketing)
    * Digital marketing
    * Inbound marketing
    * In-text advertising
    * Lead scoring
    * Media transparency
    * Online identity management
    * Online lead generation
    * Classified advertising
    * Pay per click
    * Social media optimization
    * Web banner

References
   1. ^ Story, Louise and comScore (March 10, 2008). "They Know More Than You Think" (JPEG).  in Story, Louise (March 10, 2008). "To Aim Ads, Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/10/technology/10privacy.html. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
   2. ^ Mediapost (Blog) - Why Marketers are Not Investing Online (2/13/2008)
   3. ^ Ian Mohr Daily Variety. Reed Business Information February 27, 2006 "Movie props on the block: Mouse to auction Miramax leftovers"
   4. ^ David James People Magazine Time, Inc. February 24, 2007 "Bid on Dreamgirls Costumes for Charity"
   5. ^ eMarketer - Online Ad Spending to Total $19.5 Billion in 2007 (2007-2-28)
   6. ^ The Register - Internet advertising shoots past estimates (2006-09-29)
   7. ^ Internet Advertising Bureau - Online Adspend (2007-06-18)
   8. ^ PricewaterhouseCoopers reported U.S. Internet marketing spend totaled $16.9 billion in 2006" (Accessed 18-June-2007)
   9. ^ "Spartan Internet Consulting - Political Performance Index (SIPP)" (Accessed 28-June-2008)
  10. ^ "Center For Responsive Politives Fundraising Profile Barack Obama" (Accessed 28-June-2008)

Source/Author: Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Wikipedia, “Internet marketing” (accessed January 22, 2010). Minor edits by Eric Gondwe.
 

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